Objectives: We investigated about the microbial properties and changes in the efficacy of the Codonopsis lanceolata (CL) by natural fermentation.
Methods: CL was fermented for four weeks in a well-ventilated place with 2.5% salt. pH, total sugar, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid were measured to determine fermentation characteristics according to fermentation period and salt treatment. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction were carried out for microbial analysis during fermentation. In addition, HepG2 cell was cultured to check the lipid accumulation through oil red O staining and the glucose uptake was analyzed by measuring the 2-NBDG at C2C12 cell.
Results: The pH level and the total sugar decreased with the CL fermentation. Total polyphenol and flavonoid increased after CL fermentation. It was confirmed that Leuconostoc mesenteroides were maintained continuously during fermentation. In the salt treatment CL, there was a sharp increase in Rahnella aquatilis. Lactobacillus plantarum matrix was observed in fermented CL. In addition, Lactococcus lactis, Weissella koreensis, R. aquatilis, L. plantarum, Leu. mesenteroides have been added to the salt treatment. Glucose uptake were significantly increased after fermentation with salt for four weeks. Lipid accumulation in the HepG2 cells was observed that there was difference (P<0.01) between free fatty acid group (100%) and decreased 4 weeks after fermentation (90.38%) at 800 μg/mL.
Conclusions: Total polyphenol and flavonoid were increased after CL fermentation. Especially, percentage of the glucose uptake and lipid accumulation inhibition increased in CL fermentation with salt. It is expected that fermentation of salt treated CL will be more effective in diabetes and fatty liver.