Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the effects of organizational culture for the infection control and self-efficacy on compliance with standard precautions of emergency room nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from 1st July to 3rd August, 2017. The participants were 200 nurses working in emergency rooms. The data was collected using structured self-report questionnaires. Results: The average scores for the organizational culture for infection control, self-efficacy and compliance with standard precautions were 5.54, 3.65 and 4.31, respectively. The organizational culture for infection control (r=.59, p<.001) and self-efficacy (r=.28, p<.001) were found to have a positive, meaningful correlation with compliance with the standard precautions. Multiple regression analysis showed that compliance with standard precautions was significantly affected by the organizational culture for infection control (β=0.55, p<.001) and self-efficacy (β=0.13, p=.033). Conclusion: The results for this study indicate that the organizational culture for infection control and self-efficacy were highly influential factors affecting compliance with standard precautions of emergency room nurses. Therefore, in order to improve the nurses’ use of the standard precautions, it was necessary to develop and evaluate a program that considers the environmental factors and self-efficacy.