The purpose of this study is to examine the alternation and differentiation of case
markers through the original setting of the genitive case marker ‘- / 의’ in the
ancient and medieval Korean language, which is also classified as the so-called
“special locative case markers”.
In the medieval Korean texts, the nominative case marker ‘ㅣ’, the genitive case
marker ‘ㅣ’, ‘/의’ and the locative case marker ‘애/에’ all show not only formal
similarity but also functional relevance. That is, in the case of medieval Korean
language, these case markers have different features in the texts, but they often have
the same functional characteristics. This shows the possibility that postpositional
particles consisting of vowels all originally belonged to the same category.
In this study, it is assumed that the locative case markers ‘ㅣ’, ‘/의’ and ‘애/에’
all originated from the same origin [/긔], unlike the nominative case marker ‘ㅣ’.
Under this assumption, it was also assumed that 'ㄱ' was deleted or weakened and
became active, and then it was differentiated into various vowels. And this study
confirmed the change pattern. The origin of the locative case markers was examined
through these discussions.
For this purpose, this study assumes that the origin of the locative case markers
is ‘ / 긔’ and compares them morphologically of ‘矣’, ‘衣’, ‘希’ and ‘中’ which
were used in Hyangga as the locative case markers.
This study is based on the possibility that ‘矣’ corresponds to ' / 긔' through
the fact that ‘沙矣’ corresponds to '모래' in ‘行尸浪阿叱沙矣以攴如攴’ of 'Wonga'
and the origin of ‘모래’ is ‘몰개’. We examined the process of / k → h → ø /,
that is, the process of weakening consonants, through examples such as dialects,
Mongolian language, Gugyeol and Gyeorimyusa etc.
These weakening of the consonants and glide derivation affect the main vowels,
leading to the process of weakening the main vowels. As a result of this process,
the following glide plays the role of the main vowel, and the possibility of
emergence of the genitive research ‘ㅣ’ was discussed.