Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the level of knowledge, attitude and compliance of preventive behaviors of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) among nursing students. Methods: The study sample consisted of 219 nursing students. Through the use of a structured questionnaire, data collection was conducted from June 1st to June 30th 2015. The descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were employed to analyze the data. Results: The score of the MERS-related knowledge was 9.15 out of 13. The participants had a positive attitude toward the MERS. The level of MERS-related knowledge was high in the case of temporary school closure or break in clinical practice because of the clinical training in hospitals that MERS occurred (t=2.42, p=.016). The compliance level of the preventive behavior for MERS was high in female students (t=-2.11, p=.036), in the case of temporary school closure or break in clinical practice due to the clinical training in hospitals that MERS occurred (t=3.29, p=.001), and in students that had MERS-related education for prevention (t=2.80, p=.006). The MERS-related knowledge was positively correlated with the level of compliance for preventive behavior (r=.18, p=.009). Conclusion: To prevent MERS infection in nursing students, the level of knowledge on MERS should be enhanced so that they can practice preventive behaviors against it. Additionally, the MERS infection control education should include etiology and treatment products based on the MERS response guideline issued by the Centers for Korea Disease Control and Prevention.