Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional labor and burnout in long-term care hospital care workers. Methods: Participants were 126 care workers from 5 different long-term care hospitals in B city, Korea. Data were collected from May to July 2017. A set of self-report questionnaires was administered to assess general characteristics, emotional labor, and burnout in the participants. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression with the IBM SPSS/WIN 23.0 program. Results: The M±SD score for burnout was 2.45±0.41(out of 5) and for emotional labor, 2.67±0.52 (out of 5). The final regression model was statistically significant and accounted for 34% of the variance in burnout. The factors that significantly affected burnout included dissonance (a ubscale of emotional labor; β=.38, p<.001), health status (β=-.35, p<.001), and motivation to work (family living; β=.31, p=.002). Conclusion: In order to reduce burnout in care workers, managers and members of long-term care facilities need to acknowledge emotional labor as an important mental health issue and put forth efforts to create constructive working environments.