This study describes ultrasonographic observations of five hepatobiliary diseases in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Fifty buffalo, including 20 clinically normal and 30 hepatobiliary diseased buffalo were enrolled in the study. Complete clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations and laboratory analyses were conducted. Focal parenchymal lesions including liver abscess (n = 12) and hepatic cyst (n = 6), diffuse parenchymal lesion (hepatobiliary cirrhosis, n = 5) and obstruction of hepatobiliary passages including cholestasis (n = 4), and hepatocholelithiasis (n = 3) were successfully imaged by ultrasonography. Hepatic abscess imaged as a hypoechoic to echogenic circumscribed mass of various diameters with a distinct echogenic capsule. Hepatic cyst imaged as a pear-shaped sac with a bright echogenic margin, anechoic content, and distal acoustic enhancement. In hepatobiliary fibrosis, the liver showed linear bands of increasing echogenicity with less distinct imaging of the portal vasculature. Cholestasis was imaged as dilatation of the gallbladder (GB) with wall thickening and homogeneous or heterogeneous contents. Hepatocholelithiasis imaged as an echoic structure within the hepatic parenchyma, or within and around the GB and bile duct, with more echogenicity of the hepatic parenchyma than normal. Ultrasonography can be an efficient rapid, noninvasive tool for screening of common hepatobiliary diseases in buffalo under field conditions.