Brucellosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of tannic acid (TA) against Brucella abortus infection. After infection, F-actin polymerization and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (ERK 1/2 and p38α) phosphorylation were reduced in TA-treated cells compared with that in control cells. The mice were infected via an intraperitoneal route and were orally given TA or phosphate-buffered saline for 14 days. Spleen weights of the TA-treated and control mice were not different; however, splenic proliferation of B. abortus was significantly reduced in the TA-treated group. Immune response analysis showed that, compared with the control group, non-infected TA-treated mice displayed increased levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-10 at 3 days post-infection and a further increase in IFN-γ and MCP-1 at 14 days post-infection. In contrast, compared with the control group, infected TA-treated mice displayed elevated levels of IFN-γ at 3 days post-infection, which continued to increase at 14 days post-infection, as was also observed for tumor necrosis factor. Taken together, the results showing TA activation of cytokine production and inhibition of bacterial proliferation in the host highlight a potential use of TA treatment in the control of Brucella infection.