Intermediate filaments, including nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), are important for the brain to accommodate neural activities and changes during development. The present study examined the temporal changes of nestin and GFAP protein levels in the postnatal development of the mouse hippocampus. Mouse hippocampi were sampled on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3, 6, 18, and 48. Western blot analysis showed that nestin expression was high at PND 1 and markedly decreased until PND 18. Conversely, GFAP expression was acutely increased in the early phase of postnatal development. Nestin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in the processes of ramified cells at PND 1, but expression subsequently decreased. In contrast, GFAP was evident mainly in the marginal cells of the hippocampus at PND 1, but immunoreactivity revealed satellite, radial, or ramified shapes of the cells from PND 6-48. This study demonstrates that the opposing pattern of nestin and GFAP expressions in mouse hippocampus during postnatal development occur in the early development stage (PND 1-18), suggesting that the opposing change of nestin and GFAP in early postnatal development is important for neural differentiation and positioning in the mouse hippocampus.