The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and distribution of band 3 in the collecting duct and connecting tubules of the kidney of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), and to establish whether band 3 is expressed in type A intercalated cells. The intracellular localization of band 3 in the different populations of intercalated cells was determined by double-labeling immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical microscopy demonstrated that band 3 is located in the basolateral plasma membranes of all type A intercalated cells in the connecting tubule (CNT), cortical collecting duct (CCD), and outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) of the marmoset. However, type B intercalated cells and non-A/ non-B intercalated cells did not show band 3 labeling. Electron microscopy of the CNT, CCD and OMCD confirmed the light microscopic observation of the basolateral plasma membrane staining for band 3 in a subpopulation of interacted cells. Basolateral staining was seen on the plasma membrane and small coated vesicles in the perinuclear structure, some of which were located in the Golgi region. In addition, there was no labeling of band 3 in the mitochondria of the CNT, CCD and in OMCD cells. The intensity of the immunostaining of the basolateral membrane was less in the CNT than in the CCD and OMCD. In contrast, band 3 immunoreactivity was greater in the intracellular vesicles of the CNT. From these results, we suggest that the basolateral Cl/HCO3 exchanger in the monkey kidney is in a more active state in the collecting duct than in the CNT.