The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of preschooler\'s adaptive temperament and father\'s child-rearing involvement on mother\'s child-rearing stress. The subjects of this study were 392 mothers and fathers who had four-to five-year-old preschooler drawn from 7 preschools in seoul. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, Cronbach α, t-test, One-way ANOVA, Duncan\'s post hoc test, Multiple Regression using SPSSWIN program. The results of this research were as follows: First, There is significant difference in a mother\'s child-rearing stress due to preschooler\'s sex, mother\'s education background, the number of children and income. That is, mother\'s child-rearing stress score was higher when mother was more educated and preschooler were girls and had 2 more children. Second, There is significant difference in the mother\'s child rearing stress according to the preschooler\'s temperament. Those mothers who evaluated their children\'s temperament was adaptive felt less child-rearing stress. Third, There is significant difference in the mother\'s child rearing stress according to the fathers\' participation in child-rearing. Those mothers who thought their husbands participated in child-rearing felt less stress from child- rearing. Forth, The Multiple Regression analysis showed that the number of children, preschooler\'s adaptive temperament and father\'s child-rearing involvement were significantly predictive to mother\'s child-rearing stress.