This paper deals with the mechanism of human resource development in social work profession as a response to the changes in social structure and to the emerging social needs of Korean society. In this study, the mechanism can be divided into three sub-divisions: the first mechanism, higher education system for social work profession and 2nd-grade social worker licensing; the second mechanism, 1st-grade social worker licensing; the third mechanism, on-the-job training and profession development activities in the social work fields. This paper reviewed the circumstances of other professions such as nursing, clinical and counseling psychology, and child care and education in order to acquire clues in solving the problems in human resources development in social work fields. It also analyses the mechanism of social work profession in mental health in its supervision and on-the-job training system. Experiences of social work profession development in other nations including the United States, England, and Japan were also analyzed. In addition, survey for social work practitioners was conducted to explore the recognitions and needs in recruitment and management of social work professionals in Korea. Based on research findings, this study presents the followings suggestions: to increase in the number of credits required for 2nd-grade social worker license, to implement social work education accreditation, to strengthen qualification for 1st-grade license of social worker, to reactivate system of social work specialist, to enhance supervision system, and to build \'Institute for Social Welfare Human Resources Development(temporarily titled) and a solidarity of various social work professions as organizations of anticipating and reacting to human service needs in the long term.