Purpose: Dyslipidemia was a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and was a leading cause of mortality in worldwide. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with prevalence and medication treatment of dyslipidemia in Korean adult population. Methods: In this study, based on the criteria set by the Korean Society of Lipidology and Atherosclerosis, the factors associated with prevalence and medication treatment of dyslipidemia was evaluated in a population of 12,506 people (age≥20), who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2015). The findings were tested by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Dyslipidemia prevalence rate was 36.5%. Among populations with dyslipidemia, 17.5% were treated with lipid-lowering drugs. In the multivariate logistic regression model, male, increase in age, lower education level, non-drinker, current smoking, less physical activity, increase of body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with an increased odd of dyslipidemia. Female, increase in age, higher income, excess fat intake, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and angina were associated with an increased odd of medication treat. Conclusion: The results of this study could be used to screen patients at the high risk for dyslipidemia or to predict medication adherence.