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  • 공교육 체제의 재구조화 동향과 의무교육의 과제
  • A Trend of Restructuring of the Education System and Challenges of the Compulsory Education
저자명
김상규
간행물명
교육학연구KCI
권/호정보
2015년|53권 3호(통권167호)|pp.287-316 (30 pages)
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한국교육학회|한국
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정기간행물|KOR|
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국문초록

근대 공교육 체제의 완성 이후 모든 국민이 차별을 받지 않고 균등하게 교육을 받는 것은 공교육 의 조직 원리로서 정치적, 사회적, 제도적 유효성을 확보하여 왔다. 그런데 1980년대 이후 OECD 국가 를 중심으로 교육개혁의 이데올로기로 등장한 신자유주의(neoliberalism)는 공교육 체제의 재구조화에 많은 영향을 미치고 있다. 자율과 경쟁, 선택을 중시하는 신자유주의는 교육서비스도 소비자가 시장에 서 상품처럼 구입할 수 있도록 하므로 교육의 공공성을 축소한다. 그러므로 소비자의 선택과 공급자 의 경쟁에 의존하는 시장원리는 사회경제적 배경에 의하여 좌우될 가능성이 높다는 점에서 각국에서 비판을 받고 있으며, 이에 대한 증거 또한 여러 국가의 선행연구에서 확인되고 있다. 그런데 본 연구 의 대상인 영국, 미국, 일본, 한국의 학교선택제는 방향성과 내용에서 각각 다른 특징을 가진다. 영국 은 초중등교육 전반에서 학부모가 자녀의 학교를 선택할 수 있는 권리를 폭넓게 보장하고 있다. 학부 모의 학교선택을 확대하는 교육개혁에 대하여 학부모주의(parentocracy), 제3의 물결(the third wave) 등으로 부른다. 미국은 통학구역 내 학교배정을 원칙으로 하면서, 학교선택을 인종, 소득계층의 기회 균등, 교육기관의 책무성(accountability) 등과 연계하고 있다는 점에서 '통제된 선택제'라고 할 수 있 다. 한편 일본의 신자유주의 교육개혁은 의무교육학교인 공립 소․중학교에 국한하여 논의되고 있으 며, 신제도 출발부터 선택제를 채택한 공립고교는 논외로 하고 있다. 한국에서는 사립고교를 중심으로 한 고교다양화를 신자유주의 교육개혁으로 비판한다는 점에서 다른 나라와는 차이가 있다. 본 연구에 서는 이념적 공통점과 제도적 차이점을 가지고 있는 네 나라에서 신자유주의 교육개혁이 추진된 경위 와 학교선택제의 비판 논점을 비교 고찰하고 앞으로 의무교육의 기회균등을 확보하기 위한 방안과 우 리나라 교육정책에 주는 시사점을 제시하였다.

영문초록

Since the establishment of modern public education system, the right to receive education equally without discrimination has secured as the basic principle of education. However, neoliberalism—an ideology emerged for educational reform among OECD countries since 1980s— has been influencing restructuring of education system significantly. Neoliberalism, which considers education as a kind of service that can be purchased at a market. As a result, such market forces have been criticized that its high dependency on individual consumer choices and market competition among suppliers may increase the impact of socioeconomic status on access to education. This has been evidently found in previous studies on many countries. However, the UK broadly guarantees the parental right to select schools for their children’s primary and secondary education. Educational reform that expands school choice of parents is called “parentocracy” or “the third wave”. In the case of the US, it is rather a “regulated school-choice system” as they make it a rule to allocate a student within a school district while associating school selection with race, equal opportunity among different income groups, and accountability. On the other hand, neoliberal discourses in Japan’s educational reform are restricted to compulsory education. Korea’s case is distinctive from other countries that diversification of high schools is understood as an attempt of neoliberalism. This study compared histories and arguments on school-choice systems of those four countries, and further proposed strategies to secure equal opportunities of compulsory education and its implications for the Korean education policies.

목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 이론적 배경
Ⅲ. 각국의 교육개혁
Ⅳ. 각국에서의 학교선택제에 대한 논점
Ⅴ. 논의 및 고찰
Ⅵ. 결론 및 시사점

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